Full Fiber optic isolation from Telephone linesLightning & Telecommunications
Access Control Systems
Burglar Alarm Systems
Fire Alarm Systems
Video Services Using Phone Lines
Inter-Active Video Games
Direct TV Phone Lines
Home & Business Telephone Systems
Communicating Medical Devices
Credit Card Readers/Dialers
Point of Sale Terminals
Lightning and communications equipment have been adversaries from the first time men strung copper telegraph wire. From that point on lightning has played a role in the design, installation and operation of communications equipment. Early on it was discovered lightning did not have to strike the wires in order to damage equipment and a strike a mile away could induce dangerous voltage in wires exposed to the electromagnetic field. This effect is described as "EMP", or electromagnetic pulse, and is comparable to the EMP produced by a nuclear blast. While many schemes and techniques have been employed to protect equiment, they are revolve around a few basic principals.
Fuses are used primarily for "sneak current" protection and are very slow to react. Modern electronics will most often fail before the fuse reacts. Fuses are current dependent and not effective for surge protection as a stand-alone device.
A SPARK GAP, breaks down when the voltage across it reaches its turn on point (break over voltage). Gas tubes and carbon blocks are the two most common spark gaps. They conduct to ground or another line when their break over voltage is reached. Spark gap devices are often called shunt devices. Gas tubes are popular with telephone companies because they are moderately effective, low cost and rugged. When they fail, they rarely cause the circuit to fail; they just cease to protect.
Metal Oxide Varistors (MOV) are considered state-of–the-art protection devices and commonly used as lighting surge protection devices. MOVs react much faster than spark gap devices and automatically restore to normal quickly. They work much the same as spark gaps (shunt to ground or another line) in they are a shunt device. They also turn some of the energy into heat in the process of conducting the energy to another line or ground. MOVs handle high amounts of energy, less than spark gaps, but more than diodes and are very popular in AC surge protection. However, they add significant capacitance to communications lines, can fail open or short, leaving the equipment unprotected or requiring a service call.
Diodes are solid state (PN junction devices) and are used for lighting surge protection. They are the fastest of the most commonly used devices. They also have a turn on point and conduct much like a restricter valve. Diodes have the disadvantage of being relatively low energy devices when compared to spark gaps and MOVs.
With all these devices, damage still occurs because for any of these devices to protect, they must be connected to another reference (most commonly ground). This ground connection is the problem as not all grounds are created equal and often the ground wires are disconnected, broken, hooked to PVC pipes, etc. For a ground to be effective it must be both very low resistance and very short. A ground can become part of the problem if it is high in resistance and / or long as it can act as an antenna for induced voltages.
To understand this in "telephone terms", let’s define two terms; 1. Transverse. 2. Longitudinal. To make it easy, transverse voltages are those developed between the "tip" and the "ring" wires. Longitudinal voltages are those developed in both the "tip", "ring" and a third point "ground" common to both the "tip" and "ring" lines. The polarity and level of these voltages are equal. That is the "tip" to longitudinal voltages. They are induced into both wires from the environment and are mostly noise. They are meant to be the same since using unshielded wire for communications requires that these longitudinal voltages cancel each other, reducing noise to a low, usable level. The signal, being transverse, is received clearly, even if the longitudinal voltages are present.
Even if you find the perfect surge protector and ground, your troubles are not over. Assume a perfect "0" Ohm ground, and your telephone line is connected via a perfect surge protection device.
In our example above the grounds of the surge protection device and the customer provided equipment are connected to our perfect "0" Ohm ground. The telephone line is ringing with a lighting bolt hits nearby. Depending on which side of the line has the highest voltage at that instant, either the "tip" or "ring" surge protection will trigger first, connecting that wire to ground. Looking at the above diagram, you will see that if the "tip" surge protection has triggered, connecting the line to ground, the ring side is connected to the ground also, but its path is through the customer provided equipment. This connection to the "protected equipment" offers a damage path for the lightning surge through the equipment and it is doubtful the equipment is as robust as the surge protection that is designed to handle the surge. The result is the customer provided equipment is blown and most often the surge protector is not damaged.
This is an example of asymmetrical triggering of lightning surge protection devices. Is it any wonder telephone companies suggested you disconnect equipment during electrical storms? While disconnected (not always practical or possible), the equipment is safe, but the use of the equipment is gone. It could be a life safety issue, your best customer calling, etc., until the OPTILATOR™ disconnecting telephone equipment is not a practical solution.
|FCC Part 68 Reg. #||1VJ USA-65200-VP-N|
|Complies With||UL1459, 497A, 497B|
|Power Module||UL81J1, E81356|
|Ambient||0ºC to 45ºC (32ºF to 113ºF)|
|Humidity||10% to 95%, non-condensing|
|Location||Indoor use or weather enclosure|
|Dimensions||(HxWxD): 1.75" x 3.25" x 10.5"|
|Weight||15 oz. (Shipping 24oz.)|
|AC Power||105-120VAC, 50-60Hz, 13 Watts|
|(Power Pack w/6’ cord provided)|
|Signaling||DTMF or Dial Pulse (8 to 12 PPS)|
|Loop start lines only|
|Data Transmission Rate||38.4 Kbps|
|Response Time to Transients||0 nanoseconds|
|Isolation||To 70,000 volts|
|Transient Suppression||2,650 Volts|
|Ringing||Ring Detection: > 35 Vrms (16 to 60 Hz)|
|Ring Generation: -86 to 105 Vrms (25± 2.0 Hz)|
|DC Loop Current||Input: 25 to 80 mA|
|Output: > 20mA|
|AC Impedance||Input and Output 600 Ohms Nominal|
|DC Impedance||Input: 300 Ohms|
|Output: 1400 Ohms|
- Must not be mounted on or to conductive surfaces.
- Output Voltage: 36 Volts DC On-Hook, Tip Positive.
- Maximum Loop Current Drop: 25MA into short circuit.
- Minimum CO Loop Current: 25 MA
- Maximum CO Loop Current: 80MA
- Ringing Voltage Output: 90 Volts @ 20 Hz
- Ring Detect: 50 Volts (18-60Hz) NOT for Party Line Use.
|Bandpass Performance of the Optilator on Test Circuit|
|Freq. In Hz||Transmit Loss||Receive Loss|
Level Values in DB (Voltage) Calculated
by 10 times the log of the voltage ratio of raw MV.
To Activate Warranty
Send this copy to a past Associate and a letter why you are using this product.
Then send a copy to
Stormin Protection Products Inc.
10749 63rd Way North
Pinellas Park, FL. 33782
or Fax: 727-548-0867
(one year warranty)
Write an artical for Radio World
If it gets published and we get a copy
(Two year Warranty)
Purchase a PT-450M, PT-450MNS or PT-600 MNS
The only recommended UPS for the Optilator.
(One year Warranty)